(个人笔记)Coursera 英语学术写作

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引言

文章内容是 Academic English: Writing Specialization 课程笔记。

Conjunctions

一共有下图中3种类型的句子:1)Simple 类型的句子只有一个主语和一个动词,叫做 independent clause,这种类型的句子存在 series with 3 or more items 时,应该用逗号,比如:She bought apples, pears, and grapes 2)Compound 类型用连接词把2个 independent clause 连接起来,注意连接词前的逗号。3)Complex 类型由 independent clause and one or more dependent clauses 组成。

关于 Compound 类型的句子,又分为2种情况:1)用 conjunctions(比如:and, but, or, nor, yet, so)连接2个句子。这种情况下,连接词前面应该放上逗号。例句:The waiter brought us some water, and we looked at the menus. 2)用 transition words(比如:therefore, however, in addition, thus, furthermore, similarly, otherwise, then, nonetheless, also) 连接2个句子。这种情况下,连接词左面加分号,右面加逗号。例句:I was late to work; therefore, my boss is not happy. 这篇文章中 有更多这样的 transition words.

Adverb Clause

上面的小节中提到过,Complex 类型的句子应该有一个 independent clause 和至少一个 dependent clause. 下面2个句子是例句:

  • While Sam washed his face, we listened to music.
  • We listened to music while Sam washed his face.

从上面的例句中可以看出:1)adverb clause connectors + 主语 + 动词 构成了dependent clause. 2) 当 dependent clause 开头时,需要加上逗号。

一些常见的 adverb clause connectors:after, although, while, when, before, since, if, because, even if, whether or not, in case, unless, so that, even though

More Uses of Commas

当使用 introductory phrases, Interrupting phrases, and clauses 时,也应该加上逗号,下面我分别用这三种短语举个例子:

  • introductory phrases: Due to the bad weather, our game was canceled.
  • Interrupting phrases: The mayor, by the way, will be at the meeting.
  • adjective clauses: My roommate, who hates seafood, doesn’t want me to cook shrimp.

Parallel Structure

下面是一些比常见的,需要 Parallel Structure 的 connectors:

  • __ and __
  • __ but __
  • both __ and __
  • not only __ but also __

接下来,我举几个错误的例子,然后改正它。

1、错误例句:I want to find a gym that is not only close to my apartment but also I want to find a cheap one. 第一个黑体是 adjective phrase,第二个黑体是 independent clause,因此它们的结构不一致。

改正过后:I want to find a gym that is not only close to my apartment but also affordable.

2、错误例句:He is afraid of being alone but not to die. 第一个黑体是 gerund,第二个黑体是 infinitive,因此它们的结构不一致。

改正过后:He is afraid of being alone but not dying.

Parallel StructureUsage - Parallel Structure 中有更多的例子供你练习。

Sentence Variety

用多样性的句子会使你的写作看起来更加高大上。下面总结一下课程中给出的技巧:

1、用不同的 Sentence Types

2、句子开头的方式:Adverbs, prepositional phrases, and transitions. Vary sentence openings

3、在段落中混合不同的句子长度。

4、用同义词,或者用不同的表述方式阐述同一个意思

如何写 Essay

Introduction Paragraphs

一篇 essay 的 Introduction Paragraphs 通常是3 ~ 5 句话,通常用 funnels 技巧来完成它,技巧如下:

  • 第1部分:General statements / Hooks
  • 第2部分:More specific statements
  • 第3部分:Thesis statement

写 Hooks 的手法通常用:surprising statement, anecdote, statistic, question, and quotation. Thesis statement 应该由 topic + controlling idea 组成。

Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs 必须要支撑 introduction paragraphs 中的 thesis statement,它应该包括1个 topic sentence,2 ~ 4 个 supporting ideas, 1 ~ 3 个 details or examples. 它们之间层层递进,即 body paragraphs 中的 topic sentence 应该支撑 thesis statement,supporting ideas 应该支撑 topic sentence,而 details or examples 是更加具体的 supporting ideas. 最后,每个 body paragraphs 应该包含一个 conclusion sentence.

Conclusion Paragraphs

Conclusion paragraphs 应该保持简短,不要引入新的 ideas. 有4种方式可以写 conclusion paragraphs:

  1. Restate your thesis and summarize major points. 也就是用不同的句子结构总结一下 introduction paragraph 中的 thesis statement 和 body paragraphs 中的每个 topic sentence
  2. Predict an outcome.
  3. Make a suggestion.
  4. Call for action. 呼吁人们应该去做什么。

范文

在这个范文中,老师已经用各种颜色的字体标明了文章的结构,每种颜色的含义在文章末尾。进一步地,老师已经在 first body paragraph 加入了一些 transitions,使文章过渡地更加平滑,其余的 body paragraphs 并没有加上 transitions,供我们练习。下图是文章的部分截图,全部文章去范文下载。

Compare/contrast Essays

Compare essay 就是比较2件事情的相同点,而 contrast essay 就是比较2件事情的不同点,你的 essay 只能写这2种类型中的一种,不能混合这2种类型。Compare/contrast Essays 的 thesis statement 应该做到以下2点:

  • mention the two things that you’re going to be comparing or contrasting
  • indicate whether you will compare or contrast

文章结构如下图所示:

范文下载

Cause/Effect Essays

Cause means what makes something happen; Effect means what happens as a result. When you write this kind of essay, you’re only going to write about the causes, or only about the effects. You’re not going to write about both in one essay.

The picture below is an outline of a cause essay:

The picture below is an outline of a effect essay:

范文下载

Argument Essays

每个 argument 都有不同的方面,选择一个你认为对的方面并且给出原因,说服别人。你的论点应该是 debatable 的,否则没有任何意义。To write an argument essay, you’ll need to gather evidence and present a well-reasoned argument on a debatable issue.

范文下载

参考资料

Comparison and Contrast Transition Words

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